Saturday, September 15, 2012

Ukraine Part 13 - Mountain Crimea

Mountain Crimea - Soviet Shkolfilm 1986
"Mountain Crimea" - "Shkolfilm" 1986. Play time: 00:15:09, color film. The film's director: M. Kurlat, Screenplay: V. Faust, Consultants: Doctor of Geographical Sciences Orlov, Ph.D. V. Shumsky, Operator: R. Raven, Editor: Fain-Hirsch, Director of the picture: A. Suvorov .
The film talks about the geology, topography, climate, flora and fauna of the mountain area! I'll tell you about the mountain region where I was born and raised, I know him well and love.
Mountain Crimea in Ukraine
Small mountain Crimea, and its top is low, but as amazing and unique these mountains, which lie between the arid steppe and the Black Sea.
Happy the land where the water sparkle,
Caressing the lush shores,
And the bright splendor of nature
Illuminated hills, meadows,
Where rocks frowning arches
Unusual and relief Crimean mountains: three parallel ridges - Quest - like giant steps, stretching along the coast.
Crimean mountains are very young: they are a little more than two hundred million years, and they appeared in the place where he once was the ancient Tethys Ocean Bay. Another rise of the mountain area continues today, I witnessed several earthquakes, and many well-remembered and ruined Yalta - that was in 1927.
You think it's the next earthquake? No, before you landslide - storm south coast. Separate blocks and entire arrays, slide to the sea on shale. Want to see them? Here they are - the ancient rocks of Crimea.
These folds imprinted early - the most explosive - the period of formation of the mountains, then they closed the thick limestone. Notice how many cracks. That these limestones, and is composed of the main ridge of the Crimean mountains - it is raised to a height of fifteen hundred feet. Her to give up their moisture clouds, and it would seem there must grow forests, but look - the top of the ridge is flat and there is no forest. Why? Water quickly runs down the deep fissures of limestone, it easily dissolves and washes them. Thus formed sinkholes, wells, caves.
Main Ridge edge classic karst. I have often descended into the caves with cave explorers, and, perhaps, nothing more beautiful seen. There are flowing underground rivers accumulate entire lake water. On the border with shale karst water come to the surface and give rise to the Crimean rivers, and it is their job - the Grand Canyon.
Rivers saw through the mountains and dissected topography creates all ridges. The outer ridge - the lowest, it lies on the border with the steppe, and the first takes a hit of dry winds. See what it is composed - is marl, regular school chalk. Soil on it fertile and water is scarce. Earth comes to life only in the spring, yet keeps the moisture. Here, the constant need for irrigation - a typical steppe.
And this - the inner ridge, compare it with the outer ridge. Why is it so bizarre relief? The whole point of different density limestone. Softer stacked here such shells - they are destroyed faster. Internal ridge far above the outer ridge. In general, there are cooler and more precipitation, but the vegetation is very different - it all depends on the location of the slopes. Dry slope and it purple saxifrage, yellow flowers. Tarantula - warm in the sun cocoon with offspring, Crimean beetle hurries into the trees.
And you know what they're called? Shibliak - through him prodereshsya - solid spines. There is a hold-tree, juniper, thistle. Isolated arrays with steep slopes as a protection to the ancient inhabitants of the Crimea. They were cut down in the soft limestone dwellings, fortifications, monasteries. This - the ancient city of Eski-Kerman.
Between the inside and the main ridges, broad valley stretches - this is my home. Here, fertile land, often rains. And here is the village where I spent my childhood in front of him - the northern slope of the ridge. Often, I've seen it linger clouds. This is the moist slopes of Crimean mountains. Here groves kingdom. That forest - the keeper and protector of soil moisture from erosion, but these forests remain, unfortunately, a little bit. Too them mercilessly cut down.
Upslope begin beech forests. Such mighty beeches can only be seen on the reserve. I work here: Protect from forest fires, protect and fertilize wild boars, deer, mouflon. Wild animals in the Crimea there are very few, and if not for our work would have disappeared the last of them.
That's the top of the main ridge, highland plateau - Yayla. Meadows cover only the western part of Yayla, the farther to the east, the less moisture, the poorer vegetation. This mountain range is burned by mid-summer. Here East Crimea - that is what led clear cutting of forests. Compare this lean, scorched earth with the Southern coast of Crimea. Around - amazing local and overseas plants, world-famous resorts. How did this miracle occurred, this natural greenhouse? On the one hand - the Black Sea, and its warm and humid air masses, on the other hand - a high mountain walls, reliable shield against the cold winds. Here and here formed a Mediterranean climate.
More than a thousand species of plants can be found on the southern slope of the main ridge, but is dominated by the Crimean pine. My favorite tree - a pine-plane, it is growing on the border with Yayloy and steadfastly fighting winds.
I told you about the nature of the Crimean Mountains, but I want you to know about his problems. Chief among them - is the lack of fresh water. This problem becomes more acute as the uncontrollably growing city. Cement for the construction are made of marl outer ridge, but built factory here poisons the air throughout the intermountain valleys. Marble-like limestone - a beautiful building material, but look what happens to the protected corners inner ridge!
Everyone wants to live well, rest well, but we must never forget how vulnerable nature. Therefore, each of us today should think about how to preserve the unique nature of the Crimea, how to preserve the land where we were born and live.
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