Saturday, September 15, 2012

Ukraine part 9 - History of Crimea

Crimea - Paradise Lost
A brief chronology of the historical events of the Crimea
Tavrida from XII to X century BC
In the mountainous and coastal parts of the peninsula come Tauris. Tauri tribes settled in the foothills of the Crimea, they build a beautiful stone burial boxes - the family tomb, which is composed of large-treated plates. It is from the brand - self-designation of the tribe - and is the ancient name of the peninsula of Crimea: Taurida Tavrika, Tavriya. Cimmerian tribes in these times was inhabited mainly steppe part of Crimea.
VII century BC in the Crimea
In Northern Crimea come the numerous tribes of the Scythians, who came from the Black Sea steppes. Scythians were able to push into Asia Minor lived here Cimmerians.
Cimmeria VII to VI century BC
In Crimea come first Greek settlers. The Greeks based their colonies around the Black Sea coast and are quite lively trade with their mother country, as well as with many neighboring tribes. The largest Greek colonies in the Crimea and Panticapaeum become Theodosius (modern Kerch) and Chersonesos (modern Sevastopol) Kerkinitida (modern Evpatoria), and Kalos-Limen (north-west of the Crimea).
Crimea in 480 BC
Bakhchisarai city (modern Kerch) is the capital and commercial center of the great Bosporus, which competed with the Roman Empire!
Crimea in the IV century BC
Sarmatian tribes were able to drive the Scythians in the south, close to the Black Sea. Having settled on the river Salgir Scythians founded his new capital here, which the Greeks called Scythian Neapolis. The ruins of the Scythian Naples located near modern Simferopol.
II century BC in the Crimea
Scythian kingdom experiencing its height and power. Scythians were able to capture such as Greek ownership Kerkinitis and Kalos-Limen.
Pontus in 110 BC
The army of Pontus Mithridates VI Eupator, united with the forces of Chersonese Taurian defeats the Scythian army. After the victory of Mithridates became a full Bosporan ruler of the United States.
Crimea and the Roman Empire in the I century BC
The Roman legions were able to defeat the forces Bosporus. Crimean coast almost completely fallen under the influence of the Roman Empire, and Chersonesos became the main fortress city, fixing the presence of the Roman Empire in the Northern Black Sea. The Roman Empire established a strong fortress in Crimea Charax, which is located on Cape Ai-Todor, as well as many other fortresses.
Crimea from I to II century
Crimea becomes a place of refuge for the early Christians, being under severe persecution in the Roman Empire.
Century III
On the Crimean peninsula invade numerous tribes ready, Alans and Sarmatians.
End of IV century
In the Crimea from Central Asia arrived militant Huns. Fleeing from the Huns, many tribes of Goths and Sarmatian Alans left the steppes in the foothills of the Crimea.
Crimea and Byzantium IV to V century
The Roman Empire ceased to exist, resulting in numerous settlements in the coastal Crimea pass into the sphere of influence of the Byzantine Empire.
Crimea in the VI century Byzantine
By decision of Justinian I - Byzantine emperor - in the Crimea to build new settlements, such as: Aluston (modern Alushta) and Gorzuvity (modern Gurzuf). To protect the new settlements along the coast, in the Crimean foothills built a number of powerful fortifications - the so-called "cave towns".
Crimea and the Khazars from VIII to IX century
In Crimea once again come nomads - the Khazars. In 861, the Crimea sailed two scientists monk legendary Cyril and Methodius. They preach Christianity among the many tribes of the Khazar Khaganate. According to legend, in the Crimea, Cyril and Methodius developed future Slavic alphabet - Cyrillic.
Crimea and Kiev Rus in 988
Kiev Prince Vladimir was able to storm the Byzantine city of Chersonesos, as a result of this victory, Prince takes here Orthodox baptism. Trying to establish trade relations with Byzantium, Vladimir says the main state religion of Christianity in Kievan Rus.
Slavic Crimea from X to XI century
Slavs briefly fixed in the Crimea. At this time in the Kerch peninsula there Tmutarakan old Russian principality! This episode of history is very interesting, because Many people forget that the Crimea before the future of Turkish rule was once the Russian lands.
Crimea Polovtsian in XII century
A huge part of the steppe Crimea now control Kipchaks.
Theodoro principality with XIII-XIV century
In Crimea there is a Christian principality of Theodoro, a former feudal. Seat of the Principality of Theodoro was in the city Mangup - a medieval walled city, the ruins of which are near Bakhchisaray Crimea. Theodoro population were descendants of the Alans, Scythians, Greeks, Slavs and ready. In 1220, different years in the Crimea first come Tatar-Mongols, who create this independent principality - the so-called "Ulus" - with its center in Solkhat (Solkhat - a modern Old Crimea).
Genoese in Crimea
At the same time, some come in Tauris colonists of the Italian city-states: Venice and Genoa. Fast enough Genoese became full owners of the Crimean coastal areas, founded numerous trading posts along the Black Sea coast. Genoese fortress build powerful defense for protection against warring neighbors.
The main strongholds of the Genoese were Soldayya (which is on the territory of modern Sudak) and the city of Kaffa (modern Feodosiya), and many other cities. Crimea pass through numerous trade routes that link the Mediterranean countries as India and China, as well as to Europe! The independence of the Genoese in the Crimea with peaceful and trade agreements with the Crimean khans.
Crimean Khanate, 1443
Khan Haji Giray first declares full independence from the Golden Horde, the Crimean Khanate.
Turkish Crimea 1475
Intrude on the Crimean peninsula, the Ottoman Turks, who dominate the whole territory of the Crimea III for the next century. It was at this time the Principality of Theodoro was destroyed and cease to exist. Genoese possessions in the Crimea passed into the possession of the Ottoman Turks. Crimean Khanate also takes a paste vassal of the Ottoman Empire. Center for Turkish possessions Crimea is trading port city of Kaffa (modern Feodosiya).
Crimean Khanate in the XVI century
In the valley Churyuk-built Su Bakhchisaray, which becomes the new capital of the Crimean Khanate. Despite the vassals of the Ottoman Empire, the Crimean Khanate experienced its heyday. High level of development in these times of architecture and art.
Transition Crimea to Russia in XVII century
Almost regular armed clashes between the Tatars and the inhabitants of the Black Sea steppes - Slavs - lead to the fact that Russia is trying to intervene in the conflict. Tatars periodically organize raids on the southern Russian city, and people being taken away as slaves to be sold in the Crimean slave markets, the center of which was the city of Kaffa (modern Feodosiya). Often, after the attacks of the Russian cities were ignited by the Tatars. Zaporozhye Cossacks are also making attempts to conquer the Tatar cities and fortifications, but with little success, however, since the end of XVII century Crimea within the scope of the interests of the mighty Russian Empire.
Russian-Turkish War 1768 - 1774's
The first Russian-Turkish war, which resulted in the Russian army ousted the Turks from Crimea. By Kucuk-Kaynarca peace treaty to Russia from Turkey crossed: the city of Kerch, Yeni-Kale (modern Kerch), Azov and Kinburn. Crimean Khanate formally remained independent, but gradually it has completely passed under the rule of the Russian Empire.
Taurian province in 1783
The Crimean peninsula has officially entered the Tauride Province (which was specifically set up). Just six years Taurian area was transformed into a Taurian province. In the agricultural development of the Crimea, the peninsula begins populated serfs from other provinces of Russia. In the same period in the Crimea there are numerous new cities. Building new cities Simferopol - became the new capital of the Province of Tauris, and Sevastopol - a new military base the Russian Black Sea Fleet.
Russian Crimea in the first half of the XIX century
The Crimea is actively developing the agricultural sector and the resort region. Southern coast of the peninsula begins actively developed as a popular place for summer recreation noble people. During this period, on the coast are built beautiful palaces and castles, which spreads along the magnificent gardens with exotic plants.
The Crimean War 1853 - 1856's
The Crimean peninsula is the main arena in the battle of the Crimean War. In the Crimean War, Russia was defeated by the combined armies of Britain, France and Sardinia, as well as Turkey, weakening its influence in the Black Sea. As a result of the war, in building a new huge Kerch Kerch Fortress (Fort Totleben) to protect the Strait of Kerch.
The second half of the XIX century in the Crimea
Simferopol and Sevastopol are connected by rail to the central provinces of Russia. Crimea has received new impetus in its development not only as a resort area, but also as an industrial region. In addition, the railroad and to Feodosiya. However, the continued rapid development of the resort peninsula. In Crimea start to come for treatment, rest not only the upper class and the aristocracy, but also of many other classes.
The establishment of Soviet power in the Crimea in 1917 - 1920 years
The civil war in the Crimea led to the fact that on several occasions the authority passed from hand to hand - from "white" to "red" and vice versa. Only in November 1920, the Red Army went on the offensive and were able to break through the defense Sivash, leaving entered the Crimea. More than one hundred and fifty thousand people emigrated from the Crimea by ship and the Black Sea Fleet ships. Established on the peninsula Crimean Autonomous Republic, which is part of the RSFSR. After the final establishment of Soviet power all Crimean estates nationalized.
Resort of Crimea in 1920 - 30-ies famous
Crimea is booming as a resort area, as well as a center for wine making and gardening. With the advent of Soviet power in Crimea begins to develop gliding and ballooning.
War 1941 - 1944 years in the Crimea
Crimea became one of the epicentres of the events of the Great Patriotic War. The fact that Crimea is strategically important position, and that is why there are heavy fighting with varying success, particularly strong battle for Sevastopol and Kerch for. Years after the war, these are the Crimean city received the status of hero-cities. For nearly two years, the Crimea was almost entirely occupied by German troops. With the return of the Crimea peninsula Soviet power in Central Asia have been deported Crimean Tatars and many people of other nationalities who were accused of collaboration with the German occupiers.
Crimean region in 1945
Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic dissolved and instead established the Crimean region of the RSFSR.
The transition of the Crimea to Ukraine in 1954
Nikita Khrushchev - the first secretary of the Communist Party - to mark the tercentenary of the Pereyaslav Rada and the Reunion of Ukraine and Russia sends the Crimean region of the Ukrainian SSR.
Crimea in 1963
Completed construction of the North-Crimean channel through which the water comes to the Crimea from the Dnieper, which helps to solve the perennial problem of the peninsula - a shortage of fresh water. Despite the positive aspects, the channel causing significant damage to the environment of the peninsula. Due to the arrival of the water changing landscape.
1960 - 70-ies famous in Crimea
In Crimea, build a lot of resorts and holiday camps. Crimea, along with the Caucasus is Union health resort and spa.
End of 1980-ies years in Crimea
Since perestroika began a massive return to the Crimea representatives of formerly deported people here, mainly Tatars. Tatars return associated with the liberalization of public life in the country, and the new policy of the state.
Crimea in 1990 - 2000, different years
The collapse of the Soviet Crimea moves to a new state - Ukraine. Only the Crimean city of Sevastopol, administrative and previously was part of the Crimean region, enjoy special status of the city. Despite Russia's loss of the Crimea, Sevastopol, and in modern times was the main military base of Russian Black Sea Fleet.
Modern Crimea
Currently in Crimea begins a new rise in the development of the resort and tourist complex. Crimea is experiencing a new renaissance: it opened many beautiful places that previously (in the USSR) were closed or even secret. Crimea is now increasingly becoming an attractive destination for tourism and recreation not only for the residents of the former Soviet Union, but also for tourists from all over the world!
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